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{Answer only Three(3)questions}
(Number 1)

Legitimacy: Legitimacy is a political concept which refers to the acceptance and recognition by the citizens of a country ,the rights of their rulers to govern. A government is considered legitimate, if it comes to power through constitutional means. Elected government are legitimate . However it is argued in some quarters that a military government can acquire legitimacy, through popular government policies.

Sovereignty: Sovereignty means the supreme power and authority of the state over the citizen. It is the power of the state(exercised by a body of persons known as sovereign) to make lows and enforce them all the means of coercion it cares to employ,without any interference by other state . The idea of sovereignty originated from Jean Bodin(1530 – 1590),a French political thinker and philosopher.

(choose Any Five)
(i)The constitution
(ii)The electorate
(iii)customs and traditions
(iv)Public opinion
(v)The Military
(vi)Religion amf culture
(vii)Activities of Pressure Groups


(Number 2)

Unitary : Unitary government may be defined as one in which all powers and authorities for the exercise of the functions of running a state are concentrated in the hands of a single central government. In this respect,powers are not shared between the central government and any other component units. These powers are exercised in line with the wishes of the central government.

Federal : A federal state is one in which there is constitutional division of powers among different levels or three tiers of government(federal,state/region,local governments ) . In federal system ,the federal or central authority represents the whole and acts on behalf of all in certain matters, especially defence,external affairs,currency,national revenue etc and other area considered to be of common interest.

Presidential: Presidential system of government is defined as one in which the head of state of country is also the head of government. It is a system in which all executive powers are vested in one person with the title of the executive president. The constitution of a presidential system of government is supreme and has succeeded in depositing the offices of the head of state and government in the executive president

Parliamentary : Parliamentary system of government is defined as a system of government in which head of state is distinct from the head of government. Both offices and functions attached to them are in the hands of two individuals, unlike the presidential system where the two offices(head of state and government) are fused. The head of state exercises ceremonial functions.

Confederal : Confederal system of government may be defined as a league of sovereign states with a loose political arrangement in which autonomous states come together to form a union. It is also seen as a voluntary association of a sovereign states with a recognized authority in certain matters affecting the whole and especially in respect of external relations and with a common course of actions in specific areas like foreign affairs,defence,currency etc.

(Choose Any Two)

(i)Less cost: The cost of running a unitary government is relatively lower than the federal government.

(ii)Quick action: Quick action is taken in the areas of decision making and execution

(iii)Flexible constitution: The method of amending the constitution is relatively easy because the constitution is flexible

(iv)Promotes strong government: All the powers of governance are concentrated in the hands of one central authority.

(Choose Any Two)

(i)Control over their internal affairs: The component states have total control over their internal affairs.

(ii)Obedience to one government: Citizen have to obey only one government, that is ,that of their own state.

(iii)Expansion of market:markets of member states are expanded to accommodate goods and services from member states.

(iv)Mutual benefit accruing to member states: Each member state benefits from one another in different areas of interest.
(Number 3)

(Choose Any Five)
(i)History of the people
(ii)Acts of Parliament
(iii)customs and traditions
(iv)Past constitution
(v)constitutional conferences
(vi)Judicial precedents.

Rigid constitution: Rigid constitution is defined as the one that is very difficult to amend or change. It requires special process or a complicated method before it can be amended or change. Most written constitution are rigid. U.S.A.,Ghana,Nigeria(seond Republic constitution of 1979/83 and Fourth Republic constitution 1999-2015 Australia etc have rigid constitution

Flexible constitution: It is defined as the type of constitution that is easy to amend. If the method of amending the constitution is the same as that of the passing or ordinary law,the constitution is said to be flexible. Again,the amendment can easily be done by a simple majority in the legislature. Britain,Italy etc have flexible constitution.
Answer only Two questions

(Number 6)

Legislative power: Islmaic laws were the supreme laws of the emirate. The emir had the capacity of making laws on matters which were not covered by Islamic laws.

Executive power: The emir was authoritarian and had absolute powers ,even though he had a body of advisers,yet he can ignore or accept their advise.

Judicial power: The judicial administration was based on sharia laws. These laws were administered by Alkali judges. At times, minor cases may be passed to the village heads to be settled by them. Criminal and land cases were usually refered to the Emirs because sharia law dealt mainly with civil cases.

Igbo pre- colonial government is a direct democracy because it was decentralized and based on village and direct democracy where everyone in the village has the authority to contribute in decision making.The council of elders were believed to be earthly representatives of the Igbo ancestors.

(Number 8)

Nigeria youth Movement was founded in 1935. It was originally known as Lagos Youth Movement found in 1934 by some Nigerian like Ernest Ikoli,Dr J.C. Vaughan and Samuel Akinsanya. It was led by Ikoli.
Later ,H.O Davies and Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe joined the movement. Other members were : Obafemi Awolowo,Samuel Akintola etc. with this wide membership, it’s composition, assumed a national outlook. This movement was able to complete with NNDP for the control of political activities in Lagos.

(Choose Any Three)
(i)Unity: National Youth Movement worked hard to promote national unity in a Nigeria..

(ii)National outlook: It was the first political party with a national outlook based on the diverse and wife composition of the membership.

(iii)Legislative council: It won all the three elected seats allocated to Lagos in the legislative council. It defeated NNDP which was formed in 1923.

(iv)Modern nationalism: Movement of Nigeria youth movement brought modern nationalism into Nigeria.

(i)Internal wrangling : There was internal wrangling within the movement and the establishment of the daily service ,as the official mouthpiece of the party ,did not go down well with Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe ,the publisher of the West African Pilot

(i)Internal weakness: The inherent internal weaknesses of the NYM structure could not solve the movement’s problems

(iii)Resignation: The eventual resignation of Dr Nnamdi Azikiwe and Samuel Akinsanya virtually destroyed the limited national character of the NYM

(iv)Ethnic/Tribal conflict: The movement was faced with ethnic/tribal conflicts which pitched the leaders and supporters against one another.


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